SARS-CoV-2 & Back-To-School (Part 2). Ventilation & cleaning concerns

SARS-CoV-2 and Back-to-School Part 2: Transmission through air and surfaces

In Part 2 of this series we discuss the relative risk of infection through circulating air and on surfaces and some easy examples of how to break up air circulation patterns in schools.
Major points include:
1) Risks from circulating air versus surfaces
2) How masks, outside time (especially during meal time and when shouting/singing/playing music) and opening windows and doors can help reduce risk.
3) What to clean and when.
4) Beware of the break room! Occupational transmission often comes from colleagues – reduce the risk.

To download the slides, click here.

SARS-CoV-2 and Back to School (Part 1)

 

If children can catch SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 and carry as much of the virus, why are we considering opening schools? In part 1 Dr. Bowdish discusses how the virus spreads and why this might be different between children and adults. (Short answer= children spread less because they are more likely to be asymptomatic and less likely to cough/sneeze when they are infected than adults.) Topics covered in this presentation include: 1) Which countries have successfully opened schools and why? 2) Why droplet size matters? Coughs and sneezes spread more than talking/breathing. 3) Symptoms that differ between adults and kids. 4) Priority #1 for keeping schools safe – keep people with symptoms, no matter how mild out.

To download the slides used in this talk see click here. If you would like the video in another format (e.g. .mp4, .wmv) please email Dr. Bowdish at bowdish.ca.

Dr. Bowdish talks with the CBC about whether we should worry about the coronovirus.

Canada is repatriating citizens from Wuhan, China. Should we be worried that this will bring the coronovirus to Canada?
Dr. Bowdish talks to CBC about the risks of bringing Canadians home, what we can do to protect ourselves from infection, and reveals that there is a virus circulating in Canada right now with similar symptoms that has killed hundreds of Canadians and is expected to kill hundreds more (it’s influenza and you should get your flu shot).

https://www.cbc.ca/listen/live-radio/1-82-here-and-now-toronto/clip/15758125-canada-is-going-to-try-and-repatriate-citizens-stuck-in-wuhan.-what-happens-next

Bowdish lab research on the evolution of MARCO featured in the New York Times

Our research on the scavenger receptor MARCO was featured in an article “Air Pollution, Evolution, and the Fate of Billions of Humans” by Carl Zimmer in the New York Times. In this manuscript we collaborated with Dr. Brian Golding, an expert in evolutionary biology in order to understand the evolution of this macrophage receptor. MARCO (or macrophage receptor with collagenous structure) is expressed on macrophages where it binds bacteria and particles such as those found in dust and air pollution. We had hypothesized that because it is the receptor for two pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, that have played a major part in driving human evolution, that we might find evidence of areas of the receptor that were undergoing rapid evolution to protect us from this pathogen.

In order to determine which regions of the protein were changing we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of MARCO from humans, our close ancestors, the Denisovians and Neanderthals, and primates. We found a few interesting things. There was one mutation, which we call F282S (282 refers to the 282nd amino acid in the protein, the F = phenylalanine and the S= serine), had changed very rapidly. All our primate, Denisovian and Neanderthal relatives had a serine residue in that position but fully 83% of the human genomes we analyzed had a phenylalanine. The fact that this mutation spread so quickly through the population means that there must have been very strong selection pressure. We cloned both variants and found that the human specific variant was indeed better at binding inert particles and bacteria. There were a few other interesting mutations we characterized (see article below) but the take home message is that some of the evolutionary adaptations we have made to deal with pathogens may have influenced our ability to handle air pollution or, since the savannah was predicted to be a dry and dusty place, the adaptations we’ve made to deal with particulates in the air may have changed our response to pathogens.

To read the full article, see below.

Human-specific mutations and positively-selected sites in MARCO confer functional changes. Novakowski KE, Yap NVL, Yin C, Sakamoto K, Heit B, Golding GB, Bowdish DME. Mol Biol Evol. 2017 Nov 20. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msx298.
PMID: 2916561

Congratulations to Pat Schenck & Jessica Breznik on winning the Farncombe Research in Progress Awards!

Jessica Breznik (co-supervised by Dr. Deborah Sloboda) won the “Best Presentation by a PhD student” while Pat Schenck (co-supervised by Dr. Mike Surette) won runner up!  What a wonderful tribute to their skills in both research and communication – well done!

Publication: Age-associated Inflammation alters the aging trajectory.

This article is written for lay/broad audiences and describes what age-associated inflammation is and why it may be key to healthy/unhealthy aging.

White Paper: “As One of Canada’s Top Killers, Why Isn’t Pneumonia Taken More Seriously?” with Ryerson’s Institute of Aging